Wolf DNA

Wolf DNA

How many times we find statements about the percentage of blood or DNA of wolf that is in the Czechoslovakian wolfdog?

Let’s have a little light …..

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the molecule that carries all the genetic information in all living organisms and is found in every cell. It consists of nucleotides, which in turn are composed of a
nitrogenous base, a monosaccharide (pentosa) and a phosphate group. We can imagine as a spiral staircase, where the uprights are constituted by sugar molecules and phosphates, while the
pegs are constituted by nitrogenous bases that can be of four types: adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine ( G), cytosine (C).
DNA is made up of approximately 3.2 billion nucleotide bases (A, T, G, C) in sequence, and in fact would reach the length of two meters. This sequence is organized into chromosomes,
portions of 2-4 cm genomic material. Without much in the description of DNA, it is important to know that some portions of DNA, the base sequences (GTTACTAAATGCC), encode for the
synthesis of proteins necessary for specific functions. The different gene expressions encoded in these different cells in the first place, individuals, species. Large portions of non-coding DNA
are defined, which have no phenotypic expression. The genes themselves, the coding parts, according to some studies appear to be about 30,000, according to others much less.
The dog and the wolf share practically all of this great sequence. The difference expressed in percentage terms is, according to the accredited studies (Wayne and Vilà 2001, Ostander and Vilà
2005) by 2%, but these same studies point out the interesting fact that 2% is also the difference that is Can be found between two different subspecies of wolf. It follows that in that 2% and
other added factors originate the expression of the gene that causes the difference between wolf and dog, and therefore the difference between all canine breeds.
I do not think we should add that the assessments of the percentage differences between the Czechoslovakian wolfdog’s DNA and the wolf are completely out of place.
Clearly different is the concept of “Blood of the Wolf”. In the context of the genealogical study is called “blood percentage”, the estimate of the contribution of an ancestor in one of their
descendants. This estimate is based on the notion of absolute certainty, which is inherited 50% of the genetic father and 50% of the mother. So in subsequent generations it can be estimated
(and not as much as the average value, of course) that 25% of each grandfather has inherited, 12.5% of each great-grandfather, and 6.25% from each great-great-grandfather. When in a
pedigree, an ancestor appears several times its weight in these terms absolute increases. These percentages can be defined as an estimate of the ancestor’s contribution in genealogical
These percentages should not be confused with those relative to the calculation of consanguinity, percentages that express the probability that a gene has to be homozygous for a given locus,
and the likely homozygous portion of genes throughout the genome of the subject, due to common ancestors.
In this case the percentage expresses the whole portion with which a given ancestor contributes, by virtue of the genealogical relation.
As in the calculation of inbreeding, in calculating the genealogical contribution or “blood”, the figure increases when the ancestor appears several times in the pedigree.
According to this calculation, the probable contribution of wolf ancestors in any Czechoslovakian wolfdog is determined. This contribution appears, in mathematical terms, very pertinent, with
figures ranging from 18% to 30%.
Let’s look at it with an example.
As we can see, the Brita wolf appears in the family tree 1,991 times between the eleventh and twenty-first generation, for a contribution of 5.8%.


The Argo wolf appears 421 times between the eleventh and seventeenth generation, for a contribution of 2.65%.


The Sarik wolf appears 585 times between the eighth and fifteenth generation, with a contribution of 18.7%.


The Lejdy wolf appears 10 times between the ninth and twelfth generations of a contribution of about 0.95%.


The total contribution of the various wolf ancestors is therefore around 28%. But does that mean that 28% of the genes of the new generation are the unique and unique genes of the wolf and
the German shepherd? Absolutely not, this does not correspond to reality.
The DNA sequence differs from that of the wolf’s dog, as we saw earlier, for 2%. So in the genes that these wolves have given there are large tracts of DNA and the common parts of noncoding German shepherd. The “Wolf’s Blood” (that is, the part of the exclusive genome), is actually very low in terms of percentage of math. It may be that, very roughly, to establish that this
figure is equal to 2% of the contribution of the family, that is, 0.55%. Obviously, the small size of this percentage does not express the concept that there is nothing of the wolf, 0.55% of a
sequence of 3.2 billion can still contain many parts of coding, but at this point it is necessary to consider the selection Of artificial new players, playing a key role in the transmission or removal
of portions of the genome

In the generations following the F1, only the subjects in which the percentage (50% contribution of the Wolf) is the mathematical division of the genome, the calculation becomes a probability,
which corresponds to 25% F2, F3 12 , 5% and 6.25% for F4. In these passages the genome portion of the wolf’s ancestor fell under the ax of military selection. By lineages of the first four F1
specimens (Bessy, Bety, Bikar and Ura) were selected for various themes to then cross each other, creating the first nucleus of the progenitor race, hybrids. The “ingredients” of the basic mix of
the different lines (the first 4) were 17 subjects, three F2 (Ink, Bara and Sito), ten F3 subjects (Xela, Xida, Sina, Tesak, Ciko, Mina, Odra, Ora , Hron and Lord), and four F4 subjects (Mona, Grin,
Tira and Silva)

We know from the reports of the biological project that the first generations of the selection refer mainly to the exclusion of the worst extreme character, and the preference of the
morphological features of the wolf, as you can see in the picture of Osa different characteristics with the Wolf, in the sturdiness of the foot, bone with very thin extremities, the lower line of the
torso very straight, but above all in the head we see the length of the muzzle, the thickness of the section of the same mouth and cranial depth.
The subjects with these characteristics were only the intermediate products, starting from the third generation with the success of the different subjects in the formation of operational service,
began to expand the selective pressure that ensured these characteristics wolves, to promote and ensure the character and The appearance. In fact, the most used stallion was the Lord F3
(along with Odon), which can also be seen in the photo, does not have the wolf’s own characteristics.

Hybrid pairs diagram between input lines and Sarik and Lejdy lines.


I think it plausible to suppose that an important part of the genetic heritage of wolves that regulates the patterns of behavior of more radical wild animal were eradicated in this period, at least
during the first lines. Even the main critical points of the new generation in the context of the Border Patrol, that is, the difficulty of changing the guide, is not a matter exclusively for the pattern
of behavior of the animal, but a characteristic produced by hybridization and implemented with the Selection of artificial domestication. It may be seen as an intensification of dog mistrust
(German Shepherd), but it is definitely not comparable to the mistrust and disobedience of a wild animal like the wolf.
The Sarik line was then introduced, which was coupled with Xela, line F3 Bikar and Urta, with a hybrid line spacing. Xavan (son of Xela and Sarik) along with a daughter gave birth to Rep z
Pohraniční stráže, while Eida (daughter of Urta and Sarik) mated with the German shepherd to raise Afir and Agatha, whose presence is more in the Czech lines.
With the team’s entry into play, Rep z Pohraniční stráže takes a virtually unique direction. Rep z Pohraniční stráže is associated with 18 females, of which four daughters, of their descendants
were selected 40. In parallel eight stallions from the period of separation of the former Czechoslovakia persisted (Afir, Caro, Prim, Aro, Nuk z PS, Aramis Muchova Dvoru, Bar z Belesova, Ayak z
Vlamy), a female Brita z PS and the F1 Kazan z Pohraniční stráže (last hybrid line of Lejdy) but had a limited contribution, and all their children were paired with breeding dogs derived from Rep
z Pohraniční stráže.
The family contribution (percentage of blood) of Rep z Pohraniční stráže in any specimen of Czechoslovakian wolf dog has an overwhelming weight. In percentage terms, approaching the
contribution of parents as we can see in the same subject discussed previously. Rep z Pohraniční stráže appears 199 times in the pedigree of the sixth and twelfth generation, for a
“percentage of blood” by 42.2%.


One could then consider the level of “Wolf’s Blood” of Rep z Pohraniční stráže. But if this were to really mean that the race stabilized in a part similar to that of a third generation hybrid, and this
would mean that a good part of the subjects (about 70% according to the studies of the biological project 1964-1965 ) Would be subjects with a predominant component of indiscipline and
difficult to be conditioned, and yet, the reality is that the Czechoslovakian wolfdog is a dog on average rebellious but being conditioned and trained, with a great capacity to unite with his guide.
This is due to the fact that Rep z Pohraniční stráže was chosen as the founder also because his character belonged to the minority part of the F3 hybrids since he was decidedly more docile
than the others. He was paired with hybrid spacing, selected by the military for purposes of exploitation, which included eradicating the most peculiar behavior patterns of the wolf.
In the period between 1982 and the early 1990s the breed was developed only in the Republic of Czechoslovakia, with a breeding system controlled by the Club through the selection of
breeders. In this period, important results were obtained, which the genetic biologist, mathematician and breeder Jindrich Jedlicka calculates using genetic models, in terms of selection
adequate to fix the gifts and qualities of the temperament in code with the standard of the race, the selection that has contributed , Undoubtedly, to the loss genes of the Wolf.
The morphological selection, so that a guideline that has a norm that provides the greatest possible similarity to the wolf, did not have an intensity (or pressure) to favor really different
individuals of the wolf like those, for example, we have seen in The hybrid F2 Osa z Pohraniční stráže. A selective intensity suitable for the purpose was unthinkable given the option of using
Rep z Pohraniční stráže (which in any case the wolf’s distinctive features, though not as heavily genetically) as the founder and the consequent increase in the level of Homozygosis.
And so it becomes clear in each direct entry of the “Wolf Blood”, followed by the genetic bottleneck are detectable in 3 distinct periods:

1. Military selection of the first hybrid lines, biological project.
2. Military Selection of separation hybrids, the formation needs of the border and the first idea of the new generation.
3. Selection of Czechoslovak civil clubs since 1982.

This inevitably leads us to consider that the actual genetic contribution of 4 wolves used is much lower than the estimated level by the calculation of the average family of “Blood Percentage”,
which is estimated to be zootechnically meaningful when the selection Aims to fully convey the characteristics of the ancestor member, that assumptions can not be applied with full
knowledge of the context of hybridization.
How much lower is the real wolf component compared to the calculation pedigree? The Czechoslovakian wolfhound as indelibly attached to the image of its predecessor, is now a dog breed in
all respects with its own characteristics, and should start thinking about its own identity.



  • Carles Vilà, Robert K. Wayne “The hybridization between wolves and dogs”, 2001
  • Elaine A. Ostrander, Robert K. Wayne “The Canine Genome”, 2005
  • Jinda ™ ich JedliÄÂ ka “Evaluation of the characteristic temperament of Czechoslovakian wolf dogs in the Czech Republic” 1982-2004
  • Roberto Leotta, “Elements of the breeding animals of the Society” of the University of Pisa, Department of Animal Production.

Los datos de esta página sobre la historia del Perro Lobo Checoslovaco han sido extraidos y traducidos de la web http://www.clc-italia.it/.